Week Eleven: 2 Samuel 1-24

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: 2 Samuel 1-24

 

 

At Least Know This

1 Samuel is the origin story of King David. In 2 Samuel, we see the rise and fall of King David.

 

Author and Date

There is no named author of the book of Samuel. It was most likely a number of authors (or groups of authors) that wrote the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. It is likely that it was written during the time of the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC), as a reflective history to describe how God led them during their early years in the land. 

The book of 2 Samuel describes the time during the years 1000-980 BC.

 

Historical Situation 

King Saul has died, so David takes the opportunity to set himself up as king. David becomes King over the southern tribes (Judah and Benjamin) in chapter 2. The northern tribes are in some chaos without a king. David’s right-hand man, General Joab, goes on a killing spree to eliminate David’s “competition.” In chapter 5, David becomes king over the northern tribes as well. 

The first thing David does is to capture Jerusalem from the Jebusites (chapter 5). He brings the Ark of the Covenant there. It’s a shrewd political move, since Jerusalem was a border city between the northern and southern tribes. The Ark represents the unity of the tribes.

David spends much of the book warring on neighboring nations. And it isn’t long before he loses the support of the people.

Future generations loved David’s kingship because he solved three problems:

·     How will we unify the tribes? David’s answer: Make me King, and I’ll use the Ark of the Covenant to unify the tribes.

·     Will we have an orderly kingly line? David’s answer: My son will be king, the first of a dynasty of kings.

·     Where will we worship? David’s (and Solomon’s) answer: Jerusalem.

David solved all these problems, and so future generations regarded him as a hero. In the New Testament, the people want the Messiah to be just like King David—make war on our enemies, expand our territory, and make Israel an independent nation again. As you know, those things were not on Jesus’ agenda. 

 

 

Important Passages

In chapter 7, you’ll see that David tells God he wants to build a temple. But God says he doesn’t really want a temple. God says he values moving among his people, and doesn’t want to get locked up inside a temple. God uses the opportunity to tell David that the Messiah will come from David’s descendants. Of course, the first thing Solomon does when he becomes King is to build a temple.

In chapter 11, we see the familiar story of David and Bathsheba. Usually, this is turned into a morality story about the dangers of adultery. However, adultery really isn’t the issue here (you may recall that King Solomon, David’s son, had 700 wives and 300 concubines). This issue here is the rules of Holy War. During the time of war, Kings led the charge. As you’ll see in 11:1, In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, David sent Joab… During a war, soldiers were not allowed to sleep with their wives. Bathsheba’s husband was a Hittite (not an Israelite). And this foreigner obeys the rules of Holy War better than the king (2 Samuel 11:6-13). In chapter 12, David repents (after he was caught).

In chapter 14 and following, David’s son Absalom makes a play for his father’s throne. The people choose Absalom (15:13), and David makes a run for it. In 15:18, it identifies David’s bodyguards—they are all Philistine mercenaries. Apparently David didn’t trust his own people. Finally, in chapter 18, General Joab kills Absalom, and David comes back to the throne. At the end of 2 Samuel, David is on his deathbed, and we see David’s sons fight for the throne in 1 Kings.

 

Faith Insights 

In 2 Samuel 5:6-10, David lays siege to the city of Jerusalem, where the Jebusites live. The city had pretty impressive walls, so when David’s army surrounded Jerusalem, the confident Jebusites laughed. They shouted, “Our defenses are so good, even our blind and lame people could keep you out!” Well, David’s army found a way into the city through a water duct. And the first thing David did when he got into the city? He killed all the blind and lame people. What’s the first thing Jesus did when he came into Jerusalem? He healed the blind and lame people. 

Jesus didn’t just heal the blind and lame to be compassionate. He was trying to make a statement. He was trying to say, “I’m a different kind of king than David was.” David ruled a land. Jesus wanted to rule people’s hearts. David ruled with a sword. Jesus wanted to rule with a life of servanthood. David had little compunction about killing people who were in his way. Jesus saved the people who hated him. Jesus loved and forgave the people who killed him. Jesus loved the unlovable, the foreigners, the prostitutes, the diseased, the vulnerable, and the tax collectors. That’s still our call today—to love people into the kingdom.

 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on April 11, 2019 at 6:30-7:45. 

Week Ten: Samuel 1-31

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: 1 Samuel 1-31

 

At Least Know This

1 Samuel is the origin story of King David. In 1 Samuel, we see the origins of kingship, and how King Saul ruled the northern tribes. At the end of the book, King Saul dies, and David is poised to take over.

 

Author and Date

There is no named author of the book of Samuel. It was most likely a number of authors (or groups of authors) that wrote the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. It is likely that it was written during the time of the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC), as a reflective history to describe how God led them during their early years in the land. 

The book of 1 Samuel describes the time during the years 1050-1000 BC.

 

Historical Situation 

The twelve tribes were living independently, but not always peacefully. The time of the judges is over, and now there seems to be a judge named Samuel who seems to be respected by all the tribes. Sometimes we call him a super-judge, because unlike the examples in the book of Judges, Samuel seems to be a judge over multiple tribes. 

The people want a king (chapter 8), which is a pretty clear rejection of God as king. But the people wanted to be like all the other nations. 

Samuel elects Saul to be king. Saul ruled over the northern tribes, but not the southern tribes. Late in the book, Saul fires Saul. David, at that time is well-liked by the populace (later, he is hated by the people), and so is getting ready to take over the throne.

 

 

 

Important Passages

In chapter 4, the Philistines are winning all the battles against the Israelites. So the Israelites decide to carry the Ark of the Covenant in front of them. It’s become a good luck charm for the Israelites. The Philistines promptly steal the Ark, although it doesn’t go well for them. Later, in the book of Kings, we’ll see that the people think the temple is a good luck charm. 

Remember in the book of Judges, it kept saying, “in those days Israel had no king. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.” That sounds like a pretty positive view of kingship. We get a different view of kingship in chapter 8. Samuel tells the people what the king will do; in verses 10-18, count how many times it says “He will take…” These verses sound like the reign of Solomon.

In chapter 13, Samuel fires Saul, but he doesn’t leave the kingship. In chapter 16, Samuel anoints David to be king, but it will take a while before he manages to actually take the throne of both the southern and northern tribes.

In chapter 17, we see the famous story of David killing Goliath. Lesser known is in 2 Samuel 21:19, where Goliath is killed by someone else. It may be that the editors of the 1 & 2 Samuel wanted a story to show that David was brave, and so borrowed the story of Goliath to use for David.

David is sometimes praised as a great king, a moral leader. However, the narrative tells a different story. Look for his battles where he wipes out whole communities. Look for how he surrounds himself with a bunch of thugs (chapter 22). Look for David’s oath to Saul that he won’t kill all of Saul’s descendants when he becomes king, although later David kills or imprisons them all. Read about his protection racket (chapter 25). Read how David gets a job with the Philistines (chapter 27). Look for his sending of plunder to the northern tribes (chapter 30), since it’s an election year.

 

Faith Insights 

One of the things that you should be seeing is that none of these Old Testament “heroes” are all that great. They are not fine, upstanding individuals who revere and worship God. In fact, God chooses these people to carry out his mission—but he chooses them beforethey do anything good. God chooses people because He is good, not because the people are good. God choose them—all of us—before we have the inclination to love God back. God has always chosen the broken, the unrighteous, and the unlovely to accomplish his will. We don’t have to be superheroes to carry out God’s will. We have to be simply who we are—broken and weak people who sometimes feel like we have nothing to offer. That’s who God uses to carry out his mission.  People like us. 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on March 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45. Please let me know by noon on Wednesday, May 13, if you plan to attend.

Week Nine: Judges 1-21

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Judges 1-21

 

At Least Know This

Last week, in the book of Joshua, they enter the land of Canaan. Judges tells the stories of what happened for the next couple hundred years. The twelve tribes of Israel were each ruled by tribal leaders, called judges.

 

Author and Date

There is no named author of the book of Judges. It was most likely a number of authors (or groups of authors) that wrote the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. It is likely that it was written during the time of the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC), as a reflective history to describe how God led them during their early years in the land. 

The book of Judges describes the time during the years 1250-1049 BC.

 

Historical Situation 

The twelve tribes were living independently (although at times, such as Judges 19-20, they could coalesce and become unified. The pattern that repeats through the book is:

1.     They start worshipping the Canaanite gods.

2.     They get oppressed by an enemy.

3.     They call on God to rescue them.

4.     God raises up a judge, who rescues them.

5.     And they go back to worshipping Canaanite gods.

6.     Repeat.

 

 

Important Passages

The book of Joshua was filled with stories of great courage. The book of Judge is different. The narrative in Judges is filled with horrific stories of violence, murder, cowardice, and idolatry. It can be a painful read. But its important to see the overall purpose of the narrative. We see an oft-repeated phrase in the book of Judges: 

·     Chapter 17:6. In those days Israel had no king: everyone did as he saw fit

·     Or after a story (17:1-18:1) of family who got a priest to live with them because they thought the priest would protect them from poverty, illness, or bloodshed, the story ends with In those days Israel had no king.

·     Or, after a horrific story of the murder of a concubine (18:2-19:1), the story ends with In those days Israel had no king.

The people believe that things would be great if we only had a king. But God was their king! We’ll see in 1 Samuel how they finally asked for a king, and God considered that as a rejection of Him.

Chapter 19-21 tells the story (a rather unpleasant story) of how the women of the city of Jabesh-Gilead got husbands from the tribe of Benjamin (Jabesh-Gilead was a very long way from the lands of the tribe of Benjamin). The story might seem as a pretty random story, unconnected to anything else. However, in the book of 1 Samuel the reason for the story becomes clear: The first king of Israel, Saul, was from the tribe of Benjamin, and he led a military force to rescue the town of Jabesh-Gilead. It is likely that Saul’s wife or mother was from Jabesh-Gilead.

 

Faith Insights 

The book of Judges always shows how God rescues his people—often right before they go back to idolatry. God continues to rescue us today, although usually in a way that we don’t expect. 

The narrative in the book of Judges shows how easily people can fall away and get distracted by the idols of Canaan. Today, we don’t have to worry about following the idols of Canaan, but we sure get distracted easily. It is sometimes difficult to see the presence of God when we are so busy, when our lives are full of jobs, errands, events, and commitments. But God waits patiently for us. God’s commitment to us is not dependent on whether we notice him or not. Our God always loves us and always stays active in our lives.

 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on March 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Eight: Joshua 1-24

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Joshua 1-24

 

At Least Know This

After 40 years of desert wanderings, the book of Joshua describes the people finally entering the land of Canaan. Under the leadership of Joshua, the people move into the land and then they divide themselves up into their tribes.

 

Author and Date

There is no named author of the book of Joshua. It was most likely a number of authors (or groups of authors) that wrote the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. It is likely that it was written during the time of the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC), as a reflective history to describe how God led them in the taking of the land. 

 

Historical Situation 

The people living in Canaan at that time were not unified. There was a collection of city-states, villages, and rural farmers all living independently. The first half of Joshua (see Joshua 10:29 to 11:21) seems like there were huge, quick battles, where the Israelites decisively defeated the indigenous tribes and took the land. 

However, the second half of Joshua tells a different story (see 13:1; 13:13; 15:63; 16:10; 17:12; 17:16). From these chapters, it seems that the Israelites moved in to live with the Canaanites, in a more peaceful way.

Archeology supports this idea. There are very few destroyed cities in Canaan at this time. It seems that the Israelites moved in and lived among the Canaanites. This would also explain how easily the Israelites got into the worship of the Canaanite gods (known as Baal and Ashtoreth).

 

 

Important Passages

Remember the Deuteronomic Code? It said, “Obey God’s law and you’ll become wealthy and successful. Disobey God and you’ll be severely punished.” Read Joshua 1:8. The idea of the Deuteronomic Code is very prevalent in Joshua. Watch for it! When we get to the prophets, you’ll read that they rejected the Deuteronomic Code as foolish and misleading. Unfortunately, the people didn’t listen to the prophets very much. 

There are some well-known stories in this section of the Bible. Rahab and the spies (chapter 2), the fall of Jericho (chapter 6), the sun standing still (chapter 10). To modern eyes, there is a lot of warfare, too. People often ask the question, “Did God order them to go to war with all those people?” My answer is that this is reflective history. They are looking backwards, several hundred years later, and trying to give rationalizations why they acted the way they did. And, as noted above, the entrance into Canaan may have been more peaceful than the first half of Joshua suggests.

In chapter 22, we see a brewing civil war between the tribes of Israel. This is largely because of the argument over where to worship. Remember Deuteronomy 12, and the one place of worship? The tension is beginning to build here.

 

 

Faith Insights 

In Joshua, the story is that people entered the land of Canaan and took the land for themselves. While it was clearly not that simple, the story persisted. The Old Testament is written so that we have a better understanding of Jesus. When Jesus began his ministry, people were ready for another Joshua—someone who would take the land back from the Romans. They wanted the Messiah to be like the leader here in the book of Joshua—to lead an army and take the land back for themselves. But Jesus was not interested in land… He was interested in human hearts—and still is interested in human hearts to this day! 

Remember back in Genesis 12? Remember when God chose Abraham? If you ask 10 people why God chose Abraham, they will say “because Abraham was a righteous man.” But they would be wrong. Check out Joshua 24:1-2. Abraham was worshiping idols when God called him. God didn’t call Abraham because Abraham was good; God called Abraham because God is good. God treats us the same today. God doesn’t care what we’ve done, how we’ve acted, or what mistakes we’ve made. He loves us right now, he calls us right now, and offers us new life. The staggering truth of the gospel is that God loves us right now—not as we should be, not as we ought to be, but he loves us right now, as we are. 

 

 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on March 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Seven: Deuteronomy 15-34

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Deuteronomy 15-34

 

 

At Least Know This

The book of Deuteronomy controls the thinking of the rest of the Old Testament. It identifies the “Deuteronomic Code,” which means when you obey God you get wealthy and healthy, but if you disobey God, you get swatted. The prophets disagreed with this idea, but people didn’t listen to the prophets much. 

 

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26). So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that edited the book. 

Deuteronomy was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC). 

 

Historical Situation 

Moses and his people have spent forty years in the desert, and are now ready to go into Canaan, the Promised Land. The book of Deuteronomy reflects on where they have been and what they need to do in the future.

 

Important Passages

Deuteronomy 24:17-22. Take a look at some of the passages like this, where there is a wholly, holy concern for the disadvantaged. Even if you take a shear to some of your crops, and you miss something, you shouldn’t go back and cut it again—leave it for the fatherless and widowed. 

Deuteronomy 27-28. Here is a list of those who are cursed (those who disobey the law) and the blessed (those who obey the law). Again, those who obey get rewarded. Those who disobey are punished. This idea flows into the Gospels in the New Testament—it’s the culture that Jesus walks into. The prophets said this idea was silly. Jesus puts down the idea once and for all when he dies and rises for all. 

 

 

 

Faith Insights 

In the Old Testament, the priests really believed this idea of the Deuteronomic Code: Obey the law and you are blessed—you hit the lottery. Disobey the law, and you are cursed—you are punished. So, in the Old Testament, being blessed is material gain. Being cursed is being poor and sick.

Jesus changes the definition of being blessed. Check out Matthew 5:1-12. In Matthew, being blessed is being poor in spirit, mourning, being meek, hungering and thirsting for righteousness. In other words, being blessed is no longer about material gain. In the New Testament, being blessed is to reflect the qualities of Jesus. 

 

 

 

 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on March 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Six: Numbers

This week, read: Numbers

At Least Know This

Numbers identifies instructions on offerings, duties of priests and Levites, and other laws. It is interspersed with stories of the children of Israel in the wilderness.

 

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26). So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that edited the book. 

Numbers was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC). 

 

Historical Situation 

Moses leads the people away from Mount Sinai, into the desert toward Canaan, the Promised Land.

 

Important Passages

Numbers 1:47-53. The duties of the Levites. This will become important to understand passages later in the Old and New Testament.

Numbers 13: They get to Canaan, which was the land God had promised to them. They sent twelve spies into the land to do reconnaissance. Ten of the spies said the land is filled with armies, and we couldn’t possibly win if we invaded (notice their exaggerations of the armies of Canaan). Two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, said, “Yes, the armies are big, but our God is bigger.” But by chapter 14, the people had worked themselves into a frenzy and decided not to go to Canaan. You can read what happens.

Chapter 22-24: We see an interesting story of Balaam. In those days, before two armies fought, the kings would send out prophets to shout out curses on the opposing army, and call their gods to fight the opposing gods. So, the king of Moab hears the Israelites are coming, and sends his prophet Balaam out to curse the Israelites. Balaam rides his donkey out to do the cursing, but the donkey starts talking to Balaam, and they have a conversation. As the chapters unfold, you’ll probably get the feeling that it’s one donkey talking to another. This story is referenced in the Old and New Testaments. 

Chapter 25: For the first time, the Israelites are seduced into the Baal worship. Baal was a prominent god among the Canaanites. When the Israelites interact with the Canaanites, they quickly get into the Baal worship. 

 

Faith Insights 

In Numbers 9:15-23. God was present in the cloud that led them—and a pillar of fire at night. This is the visible sign of the presence of God, called the theophany. We see this frequently in the Old Testament—and even into the New Testament. In the book of Acts 2, at Pentecost, “tongues of fire” appeared on the disciples’ heads. This is to show the presence of God—that God was with them and would guide them, just like he guided the children of Israel in the wilderness. Today, most of us don’t have tongues of fire on our heads, but we still have the promise—that God is here and will walk with us always.

Numbers 11: The children of Israel, now having left Mount Sinai, are being fed with manna… but they soon get tired of it, and demand something more. God provided, but the people seem to be rebelling at every opportunity. In chapter 12, even Miriam and Aaron temporarily turn against Moses. God wanted to use the time in the wilderness to teach them to rely on him… but they didn’t seem to want to learn the lesson. I wonder how often we turn our nose up at the lessons God is trying to teach us?

God wanted to teach the Israelites to rely on him. I’m not sure that the people learned the lesson very well, but the idea was to completely rely on God. In the desert, there are no supermarkets or hotels… they had to rely on God for everything. Maybe we, too, are a desert people, called to consistently, persistently, and wholly rely on God for everything.

 

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If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on February 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Five: Leviticus

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Leviticus

At Least Know This

Leviticus is primarily devoted to instructions on offerings, sacrifices, and other laws.

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26).

So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern

analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that

edited the book.

Leviticus was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC).

Historical Situation

Moses had marched the children of Israel out of slavery in Egypt, and the people are now at or

near Mount Sinai.

Important Passages

Hundreds of laws are given in this section of Scripture. They mostly focus on the different types

of sacrifices and offerings.

However, not all the laws are about priestly duties. Check out some of these laws:

Leviticus 19:9. They were told to reap their harvest, but to leave the edges of the fields so that

poor people and foreigners could have something to eat.

Leviticus 20:22-24. I am the Lord your God, who has set you apart from the nations. The people

were to be different—set apart and chosen to be a people who would draw all people back to

God. As time went on, they began to interpret their “chosenness” to mean they didn’t have to

interact with anyone else.

Leviticus 25:1-7. Read what they were to do every 7 years (the sabbath year), as a way to

practice relying on God.

Leviticus 25:8-55. If you think that the sabbath year was radical, read this section about the

Year of Jubilee. Every 49 years, all debts are cancelled, and everyone goes back to their own

land. Imagine what this does to the economy! It prevents the rich from getting richer and the

poor from getting poorer. And it reminds everyone that (verse 23) that the land and its

resources are not theirs. Everything is God’s, and he’s letting you use it for now.

Faith Insights

Leviticus has a few passages that cast shadows which show up in the New Testament.

Leviticus 5:7. If a family is too poor to own a lamb, they can sacrifice two doves or pigeons.

That’s what Mary and Joseph bring in Luke 2:23.

Leviticus 16. The day of Atonement was practiced once a year, where a lamb was sacrificed for

the sins of the people. Jesus was often called the Lamb of God.

Leviticus 21:1-4. In Luke 10, Jesus tells the parable of the Good Samaritan. He describes a priest

and Levite who pass by. In Leviticus, it tells why—they were not allowed to touch a dead body.

The parable of the Good Samaritan is not a story where the moral is, “we should be nice to

people.” This is Jesus’ dramatic attack on the Levitical law. Jesus threw out all these laws,

because he was replacing everything. He alone is all we need.

If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or

insights that you have received from the Bible reading), comment below! You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on February 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Four: Exodus 20-40

At Least Know This

God leads his people out of Egypt, and he leads the people to Mount Sinai. There, God gives people a two-way covenant (Exodus 19: 5-6): Ifyou will be my people, thenI will be your God.

 

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26). So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that edited the book. 

The date that Moses led the people out of Egypt is debated. Some scholars suggest the date of the Exodus was 1446 BC. Other scholars prefer the date of 1290 BC. Advocates of both dates cite clues in the biblical literature as well as archeological evidence. Personally, I lean toward the later date, just because the Pharaoh would have been Ramsees II, the biggest, meanest, most powerful Pharaoh ever. 

Exodus was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC). 

 

Historical Situation 

Moses had marched the children of Israel out of slavery in Egypt, and the people are now at Mount Sinai.

 

Important Passages

Many laws are given in this section of Scripture. The most common message in these chapters is to not worship other gods. But there are many others, from what priests should wear to how to live when they get to the land of Canaan. 

Check out some of these laws:

·     Exodus 22:21: You shall not wrong or oppress a resident alien, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.

·     Exodus 22:22: You shall not abuse any widow or orphan.

·     Exodus 23: 6: You shall not pervert the justice due to your poor in their lawsuits

In Exodus 32, we see the story of the Golden Calf. The people lost faith in Moses while he was up on Mount Sinai, so they decided to take religious matters into their own hands, by building a golden calf. This may have been a representation of the Egyptian gods Apis or Hathor… or perhaps the Canaanite god Baal. The golden calf didn’t work out well for them. 

In this section of Scripture we see two places where God meets his people: the tabernacle and the tent of meeting. The tabernacle looks like a massive mobile structure, made of poles and curtains and precious metals; it was meant to be carried around to be built and then torn down for travel. The tent of meeting appears to be a small, simple tent where God would come and talk to Moses. The difference between the two is muddled in Scripture. We actually don’t have a record of them building or carrying the tabernacle. No mention of the tabernacle being assembled or disassembled. In the last chapter of Exodus, it simply combines the two structures into one.

In Exodus 40, the cloud covered the tent of meeting. The cloud and pillar of fire signify the presence of God. We call it the theophany—the visible sign of the presence of God.

 

 

Faith Insights 

God took them into the wilderness to teach them to rely solely on him. In fact, throughout the Old Testament we’ll see them looking back on the wilderness time as when they were really close to God. Sometimes we have wilderness times too, when life is difficult. Perhaps, when we have those times, we can think of the ancient Israelites, and how it was their job simply to rely on God. God provided for all their needs, and he does the same to us today.

 

If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here, and then click on the most recent reading guide. You can also feel free to email the question to me.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on February 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Three: Exodus 1-19

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Exodus 1-19

At Least Know This:

God leads his people out of Egypt, and he leads the people to Mount Sinai. There, God gives

people a two-way covenant: If you will be my people, then I will be your God.

Author and Date:

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26).

So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern

analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that

edited the book.

The date that Moses led the people out of Egypt is debated. Some scholars suggest the date of

the Exodus was 1446 BC. Other scholars prefer the date of 1290 BC. Advocates of both dates

cite clues in the biblical literature as well as archeological evidence. Personally, I lean toward

the later date, just because the Pharaoh would have been Ramsees II, the biggest, meanest,

most powerful Pharaoh ever.

Exodus was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC).

Historical Situation

The children of Israel were living in Egypt, and had been enslaved by the Egyptian government

when they became a security risk. Moses, unwillingly at first, led the people out of Egypt, and

down to Mount Sinai. Here, the children of Israel would receive the covenant.

Important Passages

Pharaoh was disinclined to let the slaves go. So, in chapters 7-11, God causes a series of 10

plagues on Egypt. These were not just random events. This was God taking on the Egyptian

gods, one by one. Plague #1 was turning the waters of the Nile into blood—that was an attack

on the Egyptian gods Khnum and Hapi, the gods of the Nile. The plague of locusts was an attack

on the Egyptian god Seth, the protector of the crops.

If you recall the belief of the ancient peoples that gods were gods over geographic areas, then

this is really significant. The God of the Children of Israel shouldn’t have been able to beat up

the Egyptian gods.

In chapter 12, they have the Passover as they waited for the word to leave. They were

instructed to celebrate the Passover every year to remember how God rescued them from

Egypt.

In chapter 13:21-22, we see that God is leading his people, with a pillar of fire and smoke.

Throughout the Old Testament, and into the New, we always fire, smoke, thunder, and

lightning as the presence of God. We call it “the theophany,” and it represents that God is

present and active in their midst.

In chapter 19: 3-6, we see God offer the two-way covenant: Now if you obey me fully and keep

my covenant, then out of all the nations you will be my treasured possession. Notice the if-then.

The people had to obey God to get the covenant. This is different than the covenant of

Abraham—the one-way covenant—where God made a promise and didn’t require anything in

return.

Faith Insights

In Exodus 19:6, God says You will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. They were

called to be servants to the world, unifying all people back to God through their service to the

hungry, the homeless, the widowed and the orphans. However, too often the people saw their

“chosenness,” as an excuse to separate from others, rather than engage with them. The

prophets tried to correct them, but frequently the prophets spoke to deaf ears. Today, does the

church see themselves as separate? Or do we try to engage with the most vulnerable?

For the people of Israel, the Exodus was one of the central events in their history. For the rest

of the Old Testament, they remembered the exodus as the primary event that defined

them—they were chosen by God. This lasted until they were about to leave Babylon (Isaiah

43:19) in 538 BC, when the prophet Isaiah said “Don’t look back on the Exodus. God is doing a

new thing right now!” God continues to do new things for us today!

Our relationship with God today is a one-way covenant. Jesus has redeemed us and called us to

be his. There’s nothing we have to do to be righteous. God already pronounced us righteous.

We don’t have to perform feats of obedience to get God’s approval. We already have His

approval. The staggering truth of the gospel is that God loves us right now; not as we should be,

or as we ought to be—He loves us right now.

If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or

insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here.

Our next face-to-face meeting is on February 14, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week Two: Genesis 23-50 

This week, read: Genesis 23-50 

At Least Know This

Abraham dies in chapter 25, and the stories of his descendants continue. God made a covenant with Abraham in Genesis 12, to use Abraham and his descendants to unify all people back to God. The point of the stories is always “How is God going to keep his promises?”

 

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26). So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that edited the book. 

The book of Genesis was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC). Abraham, the main character in the first part of Genesis, may have lived around 1750 BC (give or take a couple hundred years).

 

Historical Situation 

For most of this part of Genesis, the Children of Israel are in Palestine. They are mostly nomadic, tending their flocks. In chapter 41 and 42, there was a famine in the land of Palestine. Jacob’s sons go down to Egypt to find food (Egypt has the Nile, so there’s almost always food in Egypt).

 

Important Passages

At the end of chapter 21, Abraham and Sarah have one son, Isaac. So, after all these years since God made his covenant (Genesis 12), he finally has a son that will continue God’s promise of Abraham having many children. It’s written so that the reader let’s out a sigh of relief, saying, “Finally! God kept his covenant.”

Then, at the beginning of chapter 22, God tests Abraham by telling him to sacrifice his only son. As with all the stories in Genesis, you’re meant to jump to your feet and say, “Oh no! How can God carry out his promises if Isaac is dead?” After each story in Genesis 22-50, you’re meant to watch how God carries out his promises. 

 

Faith Insights 

The story of Joseph moving from a spoiled child, to a slave, to a prisoner, to ultimately the prime minister of Egypt is a fascinating one. It shows how God was with Joseph the entire time, and God continued to keep the promise he gave to Abraham. In all our journeys of life, God is with us, too—walking with us and always keeping his promises. 

 

 

 

 

If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions (or insights that you have received from the Bible reading), then please click here.

Our first face-to-face meeting is on January 10, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.

Week One: Genesis 1-22

Read the Bible in a Year

This week, read: Genesis 1-22

 

At Least Know This

God gave Abraham a promise—a covenant (Genesis 12). Abraham’s descendants (physical and spiritual descendants) would be a people to unify the world back to God.

 

Author and Date

Jesus once referred to the first five books of the Bible as the “Books of Moses” (Mark 12:26). So, through most of church history, people assumed that Moses wrote those books. Modern analysis of the ancient Hebrew text shows that there were many people (or many groups) that edited the book. 

The book of Genesis was probably put in its final form during the Babylonian Exile (587-538 BC). Abraham, the main character in the first part of Genesis, may have lived around 1750 BC (give or take a couple hundred years).

 

Historical Situation 

At the time of Abraham, people were largely nomadic and agricultural, driving their herds from one place to another. God calls Abraham out of Ur (a pretty cool city in Mesopotamia), and Abraham goes to Palestine. 

 

Important Passages

Genesis 12:1-3 is one of the central passages of Genesis, if not the whole Bible. God promises that his descendants will bring people back to God. 

The stories in Genesis 12 and following, are meant to keep you on the edge of your seat—wondering how God will keep the covenant to Abraham. For example, in chapter 12, we see that the Egyptian Pharaoh talks about kidnapping Abraham’s wife, Sarah. We’re supposed to say, “Oh my gosh, how can God keep his covenant if the Pharaoh keeps Sarah?” In chapter 14, Abram fights in a battle. We’re supposed to wonder, “What if Abraham gets killed in the battle? How will God keep his covenant?” The rest of the stories in Genesis show how God keeps his promises, even when all seems lost. 

 

Faith Insights 

Why did God choose Abraham? A common idea is that God chose Abraham because he was so righteous. But there is nothing in the text that says that. In fact—it says just the opposite. In Joshua 24:2 states that Abraham was worshipping idols when God called him. God called Abraham, not because Abraham was good, but because God is good. 

Why does God choose us? It’s not because we are good, but it’s because God is good. This is grace—undeserved love and kindness. We don’t ever have to measure up, we don’t have to do tricks to get God to like us. God loves us right now, as we are; not as we should be, or as we ought to be—God loves us right now.

The covenant God gave to Abraham was a one-waycovenant. This means that God gave Abraham a promise, and asked for nothing in return. Abraham didn’t have to do anything to get the promise. God, out of his grace, gave this promise. Our relationship with God is a one-way covenant. God promises his love and presence and salvation—and there’s nothing we have to do to earn it.

In Genesis 19, God destroys Sodom and Gomorrah, for being evil. And through the years of church history, people believed that that “evil” was homosexuality (leading to years of oppression of homosexuals). But read through the chapter. You’ll see that nowhere does it identify the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah. In fact, there’s only one place in the Old Testament that identifies their sin. Ezekiel 16:49: This was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. It is interesting that our rich and prosperous churches today have chosen to forget that verse.

 

 

  

If you run across a passage that you have questions about, feel free to post questions or insights that you have received from the Bible reading in the comments below!

Our first face-to-face meeting is on January 10, 2019 at 6:30-7:45.